Free «Case Study One: Iron Deficiency Anemia» UK Essay Sample
Table of Contents
All symptoms that Ms. A has are typical for iron deficiency anemia. Such kind of anemia occurs if there is a lack of hemoglobin and iron in the body. It may be caused by the problems with iron storage, unregulated iron intake, and fast loss of iron. The case study indicates that Ms. A had menorrhagia: an extremely heavy bleeding during menstruation, therefore, it is possible to assume that a condition she suffers from is iron deficiency anemia, which may occur after severe bleeding (eNurse Care Plan, 2012).
Iron is essential for the production of protein and hemoglobin that are vital organic compounds of red blood cells (Nursing Central, 2012). In case of iron deficiency, these cells become pale (hypochromic) and small (microcytic). For this reason, they are unable to transfer the oxygen in such amount as before, and the body starts experiencing slight oxygen deficiency. Then, if iron deficiency anemia progresses, red blood cell circulation declines and body needs of oxygen are not satisfied. As a rule, women are diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia if hematocrit in their blood is lower than 36% and hemoglobin lower than 12g/dl. Anemia is usually caused by the insufficient amount of iron in the organism needed to produce enough hemoglobin and ensure its proper functioning.
Such type of anemia is typical for people in both developing and developed countries. Usually, iron deficiency is common for women who attained childbearing age and have menstruations and for people with financial hardship who cannot afford buying food that is rich in iron. In highly-developed countries, such as the United States, anemia usually affects people during and after pregnancy. Thus, this condition occurs because of blood losses during menstruations and surgeries. Also, iron deficiency may occur due to gastrointestinal bleedings and lack of iron in food (McCance et al, 2010).
Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia
As it has been already mentioned, menorrhagia can cause iron deficiency, therefore, it should be treated in aproper way. The condition occurs because of severe uterine bleedings that emerge regularly, and when menstruation lasts longer than seven days. As a non-invasive kind of treatment, progesterone therapy can be used to regulate the menstrual cycle. Also, it is needed to relieve cramping and bleeding. In this case, pain relievers that contain acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be used. Hormone therapy can serve for birth control, which is important in menstrual cycle regulation and results in light periods. Patients with inflammatory bowel processes are induced with parental iron. Also, patients’ state can be amended with the help of supplemental pills, nutrition control, and regulated iron intake. Surgical treatment presupposes hysterectomy (elimination of the uterus or endometrial ablation with the help of intensive ultrasound waves that destroy the internal cover layer of the uterus) (Kaufman et al, 2007).
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Recommendations for the Family
Iron deficiency anemia treatment may have some side effects. Patients and their families must be instructed in proper care. Patients have to drink water or use a straw when taking the pills as their teeth can strain because of them. As oral iron intake may often lead to gastroenterological problems, it should be consumed only with food with ascorbic acid, which helps the organism to absorb iron. Antacids should be avoided as they neutralize ascorbic acid. If the parental treatment and dextran are used, the patient has first to be tested to find out whether he/she has an allergic reaction. Usually, smell test is used in this situation. Moreover, it is important to reduce physical activity and increase the amount of time spent on rest because, in these conditions, an organism needs less oxygen. Therefore, Ms. A should be recommended to follow strict diet and ensure that she consumes food with sufficient amount protein and calories. Also, she needs to drink at least two liters of water, so that the possibility of dehydration is excluded.
Case Study Two
Mr. P suffers from cardiomyopathy that resulted in congestive heart failure. Affecting cardiac muscle, cardioomyopathy resulted in systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Myocardium failure is a clinical syndrome, which occurs when the heart is not able to pump enough oxygenated blood to satisfy body’s needs (Hudson, 2009).
Healthcare giver should take care to control the patient’s cardiac, neurological and oxygen characteristics. If there are any changes in patient’s state, they should be carefully recorded and considered. Each bed-day of the patient stay in the hospital must include weighing. If the patient gained more than 2.2 kg, it is necessary to report on this fact as it can be important for further treatment. Patient’s breathing should be controlled as well. Any unusual sound can be a sign of the excessive amount of fluid in lungs. Distention of jugular vein, peripheral edema and capillary replenishments must be also controlled as they can be signs of the failure of the right side of the heart.
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It is important to evaluate the symptoms, consider the amount of fluid and assess the effectiveness of diuretic treatment. Discussing test results, a healthcare provider needs to pay attention to the indicators of potassium and creatinine sodium. Electrolyte levels are essential elements of analysis as well. For example, if there is a higher level of sodium, hypernatremia may develop. If a potassium level is lower, hypokalemia occurs. Such condition may lead to problems with heart rate. If there are troubles with breathing, such bronchodilators as theophylline can be used to improve breathing by widening bronchial tubes. In case of uneven heart rate, inotropic agents such as digoxin will foster proper contractibility of myocardium. When electrolytic imbalances are measured, it is necessary to control the consumption of sodium and fluid.
The patient should be recommended to limit physical activity and avoid stress. The interventions will prevent recurrent cardiac and catecholamine problems. A consultation of Mr. P family is needed to teach them to deal with the situation with the help of their feelings. Tenderness and calf pain must be controlled.
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