Ethics on the Job is a book by Pfeiffer and Forsberg that addresses the philosophy and ethical behaviors within the job place. He addresses a phenomenon where employees lay blame squarely on the organization despite the fact that they have contribute to their troubles by not adhering to the ethical codes. In addition this book uses a case of decision making as a strategy in case they face a conflict concerning the ethical codes. Thus the book is analyses methods that can be applied while solving such problems. Ethical principles must be followed in a working place. This helps to solve personal issues that may arise within the organization which demands use of s decision making strategy and application of sense of reasoning. Therefore this book involves the following;
I. Ethics and Ethical Decision-Making
According to Pfeiffer and Forsberg, ethics should guide the process of decision making. This implies that descion making in a job place should entail ethics, correct judgment of others, application of ethical principles and value judgment. Moreover, one should judge equally and consider both the pros and cons of taking a certain action to the interest of others and the organization. It is important to act or behave ethically. Conflicting goals are also likely to develop due to the fact that member s of the organization is likely to have diverse expectations (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). However, in such cases, they should be guided by ethical values that will help to justify the course of action. Ethical decision making should be used to guide in making of different kinds businesses such as the capitalist system whose elements do not favor equality in business performances.
II. Ethical Principles
Ethical principles should indeed guide every individual in the working place. Ethical principles contain a series of mandatory requirements through which one should behave in consideration of the affairs of other workers and for the welfare of the organization. In this case, ethical principles should involve application of moral rules, respect of each other duties and rights (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). This is important as it helps to prevent conflicts from arising within the organization or among the workers which could bring negative impacts. According to Pfeiffer and Forsberg, ethical principles should guide the ethical rights which imply that every one should respect one another despite the different in level of operation. Employees should respect the employers and vice versa. This leads to effective and efficiency in production and operation as it helps to develop team work. Everyone has different interests. Therefore the entire organization has got its goals as well those of the employees and employers (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). This means that every works to see that his or her interests are fulfilled according to his or her own desires. Moreover, the main goal of an organization is to increase productivity and maximize profits while those of workers of provision of good working environment as well as better payment which will help to motivate them. Other ethical principles should involve in creating a valuable network. Network involves both internal and external. There should a well developed relationship between the members of the staff as well as their clients.
III. The Resolvedd Strategy of Ethical Decision-Making
Pfeiffer and Forsberg developed an analytical system of model which should be applied in decision making ethically. RESOLVEDD strategy is a step by step model that can be used to solve conflicts within a job place. The resolved strategy involves the following steps; the first step is to review the situation. This demands that the concerned individual or team analyze critically the situation before arriving at a conclusion. This helps the person to identify the real cause of the situation and hence make the appropriate step (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). The second step is ethical issue identification. This implies that the issues are identified in a more ethical manner. This is through application of reasoning and ability to put every course on the case before making judgments. This helps to avoid rule making and criticizing other members at the work place. Hence avoid conflicts.
The third step finding solutions. After one is able to indentify the situation in a more ethical way, he or she is in a position to find solution. Solutions should be based on well analyzed situations to avoid making the wrong choices. Indeed solution implies that they are fit for resolving the conflict and hence when wrong choice is made, the resolution is not going to fit in the raised situations. Outcomes are the fourth step in the RESOLVEDD strategy approach (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). This involves the likely outcomes or results after the chosen solutions are implemented. In order to have positive outcomes solutions applied must be well analyzed to fit everyone who is involved. Moreover, every solution is likely to have an outcome. The fifth step is the likely impact. For either positive or negative impacts to occur, they will directly depend on the sort of solution that was used to solve the ethical conflicts and the outcomes of such a strategy. Therefore impact is important as it will pave way for positive progress in solving the ethical conflict. Impacts are likely to affect the life of people and therefore the solutions should be set in a position that they are going to affect the life of people in a more conducive way.
Sixth step is the value analysis. This should be applied through a model which states that all factors affecting the conflict should be considered in order to analyze the value. In application solutions, there are values that are going to be violated while others are likely to be upheld. This tow should be considered (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). After analyzing the value of the situation, it is then evaluated. Evaluation should be done in a more comprehensive manner to avoid value judgment and criticizing. Decisions are then arrived at. It is important to make good decisions when faced with an ethical conflict that concerns the ethics on a job. Decisions should be critically analyzed to ensure that they are in a position to solve the conflict putting into consideration all demands of the conflict and those involved. There are decisions that will be supported, detailed while other will be objected in resolving a conflict. The final step is defense. One should be in a position to defend his or her actions. It is likely that every decision made is likely to have weakness as well as strengths (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005).. But it is likely that people are likely to see the black side of it. Therefore one should be in a position to defend every decision that has been made.
IV. Details of the Strategy
RESOLVEDD strategy as applied in ethical decision making in solving ethical conflicts involves the following; the application of a method of solving problem that implies use of step by step in solving conflicts. Ethical principles entail the rules that govern a business, rights of the workers and member of the staff as well as the justice that everyone is required to get at the job place. Personal ethical issues at the job place can be solved by application of the ethical principles that helps to guide the individuals and enable to make the right decisions. This case also helps the business on the strategies to apply at the working place to survive in the capitalistic market. An ethical principle should be upheld by an organization while making any given solution. In this case, the chosen solution should be guided by ethical principles to avoid their violation and in the process make amicable solutions for an ethical conflict. It is important to consider other parties at all stages and in carrying of the day to day activities. For example while doing the O and L stages, it is important to consider the other parties that are involved in the organization. One should understand the methods used in the evaluation a process that will help in avoiding the moral arithmetic. Indeed ethics are not quantitative but they are qualitative. Therefore is the ethical principles are not followed, it is likely that moral and other ideas are not likely to be followed and hence they wont help in any given situation. In order to act in a certain way, an individual is guided by conscience and his or her intuitions. Having a comprehensive defense for the decisions that you have taken will help you to avert from objections from other parties. No decisions that can be made and not evaluated. Therefore evaluation is essential in descion making and must be exercised to ensure that the process is implemented in a more advanced manner.
V. Two Analyses of Personal Ethical Conflicts
Personal ethical conflicts are analyzed by Pfeiffer and Forsberg using two analytical perspectives. One of the perspective is the case where is considered as a ghoul. In real sense a reporter should be humane. He should possess human qualities that show acknowledgement and respect for the life of other people. Despite the fact that no one is perfect, one should try to the best to avoid going against the ethical codes that helps to maintain a better job place. According to Pfeiffer and Forsberg sin of omission are likely to occur but should not be a determent to adherence to the code of ethics.
VI. Personal Ethical Problems for Analysis
Ethical personal problems analysis depicts the responsibilities of both the customer and the staff. On one is always right. Pfeiffer and Forsberg in their book use a scenario of the vice president and the account manager. The manager and the employees should be loyalty top one another. Standards should be set within which often should act responsibly top each other to avoid conflicts arising due to lack of a good framework (Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). However, there are situations where cases of deception and shrewd bargaining are likely to occur. This leads to lack of trust to each other. Moreover, the operations of the company should be well known to each member to avoid dishonesty in making of the price. The process of hiring and methods of promotion should be thoroughly scanned to ensure that no feels alienated from the promotional process. It should be done on merit. The company should also adopt an affirmative action as well as a policy that will help to guide the promotion process. When all the members of the staff are working hand in hand with the management, they are likely to reduce chances where the image of the firm is likely to be tainted.
For this reason damaging adverts as well as messages aimed at destroying the image of the firm should be avoided. This also helps to reduce a situation where the management keeps everything to them, maintaining high level of secrecy due to lack of trust. The type of language that is used at the work place is also very vital. Employees should develop a standard language because of diversity. Personal beliefs and should not be used to guide every employee as this is likely to develop conflicts(Pfeiffer& Forsberg, 2005). Moreover, employees should come up with policies that should advocate for anti-nepotism both internally and externally. In this case, the environment should be conducive to enable the organization to have increased profit. Other activities that should be voided include office gossip and discriminating other workers fro one reason or another