Social Ethics uk
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1. At one instance, Beauvoir pointed out that women are referred to as the weaker individuals in the human race. She argued that men had made women the "Other" in humanity by instilling a bogus impression of "obscurity" around them. She argued that men used this as a justification not to appreciate and understand women or their troubles and not to aid them in them, and that this stereotyping was often done in the world by the group superior in the ladder to the group inferior in the ladder. The men believe that women are ‘mysterious” probably because they do not look like men. But she argues that, biological difference do not matter a lot when it comes to bearing of responsibilities and activities.
On the other side, women eat themselves because they are very submissive, that is, they define the men as the ‘one’ thus making themselves to be the ‘other’. Instead of playing their position as women, they cast themselves as the ‘other’ that is the ‘subordinates’. numerous American women particularly are ready to think that there is no longer any space to occupy the woman as such; if a rearward individual still positions herself for a woman, other women tell her that she should be psychoanalyzed and should stop being in her sea of fascination. They are therefore said to put themselves in ‘blind positions’. This means it is too hard for them to organize themselves and resist this slavery.
2. Women are assumed to be similar enough to share a common viewpoint, based in the biological capability and anticipation of motherhood that is ‘maternal practice’, and that characteristically; feminine traits include concern, empathy, nurturance, and kindness. Therefore, feminine approach in making moral decisions is full of these traits. They should be filled with love and compassion, caring and providing a kind platform for them to be implemented with care. Gilligan insists that women should speak the language of care unlike men who speak the language of justice. Feminine characteristics are very natural, that is they are bond on emotional intelligence. They should be considerate of their own interests, other people interests and the merged interests of their own and those of others. The approach should be full of bias evasion so as to avoid hurting anybody involved. Nodding insists that this approach should be based on one’s own way of caring about others. She says that the way a woman cares herself and property is the same way that she should take care of others in her moral decision making. Thus, the self-caring is actually a disguised form of other-directed care. One is not considered a good moral decision maker and implementer, in case she doesn’t make decisions that exemplify care within her own premises. For example, a mother cannot be considered to care about the children in war affected countries if she cannot take care of her own children; even if she contributes a lot in charity.
3. Women need to wake up to their rights and stop eating themselves. They need to create some space for their investments and developmental activities that will aid in reaching the new vision. Every human being has equal rights in this world. Therefore he or she should be given enough space for self and communal development. Irizarry points out the types of feminists; he notes that feminists of difference and those of equality. Those of difference are interested in changing argumentation in order to deconstruct a discourse. The most interesting ones out of this are those that want to change argumentation in order to deconstruct a discussion. In summary, if women need to improve one another, then they should fight together. Through their unity they can mobilize the rest of the society to work together without the use of classes. This means everybody will be involved in developmental activities, hence, faster economic growth. Hook suggests that gender should also be viewed in relation to race and class. That means that women of all classes should be addressed. For example, wealthy white women tend to enjoy more gender equality than poor black women in America. This is because the vision is global and the objectives are placed to favor all sorts of humans. According to Irigaray, sexual differences will still remain but the potential that a woman has needs to be protected and be given a chance to act.
4. Ecofeminism is a social and political change which directs to the existence of substantial common ground between environmentalism and feminism. It tries to explain the issue that God is not of male nature, that he only favors the men. Therefore some of the principles are:
(1) People should fight towards the avoidance of male bias in dealing with nature.
(2) Naturalize the domination of men that is make it fit in the ecological environment that God provided before we landed on earth.
(3) Promote the humanity of women, and states that diminishing it is presumed not to be divine ad it is evil.
(4) Promotion of new cultural consciousness that would support relations of mutuality, rather than competitive power. Issues that bring competitiveness between males and female should be avoided so as to continue instilling the divine outlook that it deserves.
There is need to think of human consciousness, not as separating humans as a higher species from the rest of nature, but rather as a gift to enable humans to learn how to harmonize their needs with the natural system around us, of which we are a dependent part. This natural system contains both men and women with equal rights towards this nature. This fact entails that women are not to be separated from the rest of the humanity, but should be seen as a gift to enable men to learn how to harmonize their needs with the environment they provide.
5. Hook suggests ‘sisterhood’ and ‘solidarity’ as what should be part of the endeavors towards finding a solution to reduction or probably eradication of gender insensitivity and the fight for women’s place in the society. She criticizes hierarchical thinking as well as dualistic thinking. This is because dualistic thinking portrays separation between men and women and hierarchical thinking tends to show the inequality between men and women- which is not true. Basically, these types of thinking truly and openly show that there is no love between the two parties. She emphasizes that feminist revolution will take place only if men become mutual companions in the great efforts in the movement. This solidarity or sisterhood is a bond of love that needs to be strengthened if cooperation and unity against gender insensitivity has to be achieved.
Ruddick held that traditional ethics not only discounts women'smorality but presents what amounts to men'smorality as gender neutral morality. But she stressed that human being relationships are not between equally-informed and equally-powerful people but between unequal and interdependent persons. She points out that in mothering, men can also be ‘mothers’ that is they can take care of their children just like their mothers do. This makes the concept of mother as genderless. That means that women should not be left with the full responsibility over their children. Love is shown when a husband and wife help one another in mothering. The bond becomes stronger and gender insensitivity is reduced.