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Chapter 14

• An empirical approach to personality assessment can be based on watching, experimenting, measuring, and comparing. The examples of such approach are criterion group approach and factor analysis. The first approach includes selection of items that can discriminate between the criterion and control groups, and studying these groups on the basis of comparison according to the chosen criteria. Factor analysis is based on statistical procedures that are used to analyze the relations between different variables (traits of character). The advantages of the empirical methods are that they are based on the definite real-life examples; experiment actual values; and are observable, easily replicated, and confirmed.

• Among the possible ethical issues related to personality assessment, one should mark out the conscious consent of the individuals or their parents, involvement of the other individuals, obligation to use nonbiased instruments and avoid cultural, racial or gender conflicts, appropriate interpretation of the results, and considering the issues that can arise because of computerized testing.

Chapter 15

• Critical incidents are the events that are traumatic for a person; need some extraordinary adaptation level; or cause strong emotional reactions influencing his/her ability to function. Incident sampling is a type of non-probability sampling that is based on questioning the most easily acceptable people and tend to represent thetrend in population in general. Time sampling is a technique that represents the degree to which a behavior can happen by observing the frequency of occurrence in a definite period of time. Participant observation is a research method that is based of collecting data by one, who takes a role in the situation that is analyzed. Situational testing is the one that is focused on measuring the most appropriate patterns of behavior or traits in a definite situation. Nonverbal behaviors are the subconscious movements of the body that can express emotions, attitudes, personality traits or support the verbal communication. Self-observation is researching one’s own thoughts, behaviors, and traits. Content analysis is the study of the contents of the empirical documentation.

Methode clinique (experimental phenomenology) is the method that was first used by Piaget and is based on the idea to present a person together with the situation that needs to be handled. Stress interviewing is testing aimed to determine the individual’s reaction on pressure. Cognitive interviewing is the testing method based on retrieving information from the person’s memory.

Chapter 17

• The criterion-keying approach implies that the items are selected in terms of their ability to distinguish between two groups of examinees. Firstly, the criterion groups are chosen. After that the generalizability is narrowed by marking out the necessary items. The characteristics are chosen simply and directly based on what needs to be tested.

• The main aim of MMPI-2 is to assess a number of clinical conditions. It is used to access the candidates for various high-risk positions. Although MMPI was used only in clinical conditions, MMPI-2 was developed for much more than therapy, counseling, and hospital treatment. It is popular because it can be used in nonclinical settings; it is money-saving; the questions are true-false, which makes testing easy and time-saving; and it allows different specialists interpret the results.

Chapter 18

• Projective hypothesis is a basis of the projective personality tests such as Rorschach or Thematic Apperception tests. It is the idea that the ambiguous stimuli are reflected by people in ways that show their feelings, concerns, desires, needs, and conflicts. Projective tests allow assessing the unconscious aspects of personality. They are not transparent as do not let the examinees know how their responses will be interpreted. Also, they do not allow faking the traits and provide much useful information on people.

• Rorschach test results are analyzed on the basis of scientifically derived algorithms, psychological interpretation or both. If one cannot describe his/her thinking process openly, it means that he/she has some thought disorder. Few color responses can show the limited emotional capacity of a patient. The chiaroscuro answers, mainly those that deal with the shading parts also deal with emotionality. The associations with the human genitals can identify the patient’s sexuality.

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