Week Two Assignment uk
The topic of risk is not new either to the world or to the field of emergency management. Throughout recent years the risk of potential emergencies has risen extremely high. Thus, there is a need in correct risk mitigation and management. In order to perceive risk correctly an emergency manager should, first of all, understand the concept of risk; second, know the steps towards risk assessment; third, comprehend the difference between “subjective” and “objective” risks; fourth, have concrete knowledge about risk maintenance, that is to know three categories of disaster reduction strategy; and fifth, provide the knowledge of disaster aid in disaster mitigation. Therefore, the further essay will show precise knowledge of the subject and its complete cognition by means of answering the questions under study.
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Risk in the sphere of emergency management can be defined as a hazard, which has a strong probability to occur in any period of time. However, the definition is not limited only to one explanation. Risk can also be an action of courage, especially when the consequences presuppose an injury to the body or any kind of damage, the damage or destruction of someone’s property, collapse of ideas and moral principles.
The concept of risk introduces a process, the state of mind or feeling of adrenalin flowing throughout human body, which is a natural engine that prompts to proceed in doing dangerous acts. Whenever there is a risk there is somebody or something vulnerable to it.
In order to assess risk correctly certain steps should be taken. Firstly, risk assessment is one of the methods to evaluate risk. Secondly, according to Panafrican Emergency Training Centre, the process of risk evaluation begins with hazard consideration (natural or man-made), risk element count (opulation or physical structures), and vulnerability assessment of elements under threat (humans: age, sex, income; construction: type) (WHO/EHA, 1998).
There are two particular types of assessing risk. The first of them is Quantitative risk assessment and its evaluation formula is hazard + elements at risk + vulnerability = risk. The second is Qualitative risk assessment. This method requires the rating (high, medium, low) of such characteristics as: seriousness of risk (To what extent is it serious? Is it able to cause death?); risk manageability (Is it possible to manage? What are the precautions/measures to be taken?); urgency of risk (Is it urgent or not? If the action is prompt can it limit the possible damage? Is there panic within the community?); and risk growth (What are the outcomes? Is the situation getting worse?) (WHO/EHA, 1998).
There are two types of risk – objective and subjective. Objective risk requires deductive or inductive methods of calculations if there is the probability of risk occurrence. Hence, the given method is applied grounding on reason and personal risk perception of an individual. Here, deduction is a mathematical or logical process of reasoning, where the conclusions made are from hypothetical inference. Induction, in its turn, is an urged conclusion, prompted by general derivation of principles from simple facts.
Subjective risk is grounded on the pillars of emotive conclusions – personal human perception of risk, which is unwanted. For example, if a person acknowledges that his/her actions lead towards injuries, breakdowns, heart attacks or other problems with health, and even death, he/she will evaluate the given risk according to his/her own preferences and the instinct of self-preservation.
When a disaster occurs there is a need in disaster reduction strategy. Thus, there are three categories of this strategy: 1. Mitigation - softening of the initial impact of a disaster; 2. Protection – scientific methods to alter the disaster, reduce its causes and decrease affects; 3. Adaptation – human preparation towards possible hazard, which lowers the state of being vulnerable among humans.
The first category of the disaster reduction strategy anticipates the frequency, intensity, scale and impact of the possible hazard. An example to mitigation strategy is insurance. Insurance agencies mitigate the possibility of disaster impact by providing guarantees of expense coverage in case of the hazard occurrence.
The second category of the disaster reduction strategy includes all the innovative ways to prevent the possible hazard or reduce its impact. For example, The Swiss Cheese Model represents different organizational layers, which promote to the systematic occurrence of different accidents. There is a possibility to alter the unwanted accident on each of the layers. The major layers are: Unsafe acts (human errors and violations), Conditions (human substandard conditions and substandard practices), Supervision (human supervised inadequacy, planned inappropriate operations, problems of failed correction, supervisory violations) and Organization (resource management, climate and process of organization) (de la Rosa Ducut, 2011). Therefore, with the help of governmental and scientific interventions people can be protected.
The third category of the disaster reduction aims at behavioral change in human society. For example, communities will be prepared for possible damage if there are special centers to educate them and prepare for different hazards, preliminary forecasting, and various warning systems starting from newspaper advertisements to sirens. For instance, in case of a tornado people need to be aware one will occur, and instead of panic they need to be taught to be organized, to have a special vault with provision to hide in, and particular means to warn the others.
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