The subject of political stability and policy of neutrality in the Muslim societies has drawn a lot of concern in recent studies. There has been a search to give an account for the persistent political instability in Muslim societies, for their apparent inability to generate long-lived states and empires like the ancient Roman or Sasanian Empires. These are just but examples of the Muslim societies which have experienced political unrest. Writers like Ibn Khaldun have been in the fore front in describing the cause and nature of political societies which includes the Muslim political society. Ibn Khaldun's theory of dynastic rise and fall describes what we have seen in the Eastern Islamic world. Thus, this essay seeks to highlight on where the Ibn Khaldun's theory fits pretty well and the factors that are needed to explain the rise and fall of these empires.
Looking at Ibn Khaldun’s theory, there is no individual dynasty or even a society that can forever maintain a high development level. The moment maturity has been acquired, decays emerge in a similar manner as plants and animals attain the maturity which is natural to their particular species and ultimately decay. Based on this perception, there are limits to the fully established social state. Even before a downfall emerges, a cost must be incurred for progress to be attained towards civilization. One of the factors focused by Ibn Khaldun as crucial to the political and social development is the solidarity sense of the feeling of a certain group. The mind state that makes people come up with identification to a certain group and lowers their individual interest in favor of the interests of the larger group.
When there is no willingness to subordinate to the interests of the group, social and peace development cannot be achieved. The expectation of Ibn Khaldun is the solidarity sense to be founded normally and originally on ties of kinship. This expectation can also be supported by beliefs held in religion. However, no religion can have any influence if the members do not have a robust solidarity sense. Well, Ibn Khaldun seems to create a clear distinction between religion and politics. Muddling religion and politics based on Ibn Khaldun’s theory of dynastic rise and fall apparently is the cause of political instability in the Muslim Society set up. Despite being a Muslim, Ibn Khaldun in his theory intends to use the theory for all societies. The theory refutes the ideas held that a society should be founded on the prophet’s work because even those without religious inclination have states. Religion can never be a substitute for governance and a society that mixes these two is doomed and assured of political unrest. The Muslim world and society seems to be a victim of this circumstance. The idea put across in this theory is the fact that royal authority which promotes political stability is a natural concept to all human groups. The form of government regarded as normal by Ibn Khaldun is a system of monarchy.
Ibn Khaldun’s position on the desire for stable politics and royal power, as seen in the theory is not founded on the benevolence philosophy. It is basically a creation from the animal section of the nature of human’s. In actual sense, Ibn Khaldun does not idealize the power of politics. Well, men have always sought for political power as though it were a good. Political power makes civilization and development possible. There is a great potential in political power but if it is not controlled using the right tools and measures, it can be destructive. Again, civilization is not only a good thing and is not expected to be long lasting based on the views of this theory. The rule of politics is in one way very significant for all people. It keeps people distant and prevents them from attacking one another. Therefore, if there was good political rule, a lot of stability would be realized with many societies and more specifically the Muslim world that has realized unrest and the absence of neutrality policy. Looking squarely at these matters, the rise and fall of Roman or Sasanian Empires can be inclined to these issues.
The manner in which religion is integrated into the political arena clearly shows how Ibn Khaldun theory and beliefs fit in addressing political instability in Muslim societies. Indeed, the theory relates very well to group feeling as well as the rise and fall of empires and dynasties and more specifically in the Muslim Societies. All the same, the theory may be flawed in some way especially when we consider history. Looking at the social science history, it tends to look as though it was founded in Europe. The neglect is basically on the notion that other cultures and more in particular the Indian and Arab cultural origins also had an influence on the establishment of the Europe ideas. A deductive reconstruction of a diverse political system comes out opposed completely to a supple conceptualization of compelling forces that nurture societies into various kinds. Thus, Ibn Khaldun’s theory can offer a great understanding of the more distinctive tradition of sociology and power in the creation of social change.
On a different note, the theory takes up an inductive and a naturalistic argumentation mode which are actually a social process which determines the rise and fall of empires. Ibn Khaldun draws argument from examples in history and shows each particular culture having its own kind of rise and fall. The type of leadership is the key cause of such rises and subsequent falls in the Muslim societies. The theory indeed is a modern description of a sociologist which could be of some significant application while trying to explain the kind of unrest that is realized with Muslim political instability. The dynamics of change in the society as described by Ibn Khaldun relate closely to the concepts of sociology clearly stating important demarcations that would be useful in building a stable political authority. The group feeling coupled with other factors of religion with clear cuts is deemed important in propagating a peaceful and harmonious co-existence in any given society.