In research, there are two methods, which are used in finding information, this research methods are broadly referred to as deduction and induction. According to Babbie, deductive research works from a more general information to a more specific information. This method is also known as “top-down “ approach. In this type of research method one finds a topic of interest , then narrow the topic down to specific hypothesis, which can be tested. The hypothesis are then narrowed down further during hypothesis in order to address the hypothesis after collecting the observations, the hypothesis are tested using specific data. A confirmation is then done to find out whether or not the results conform to the topic or original theory.
Inductive research is the other way, whereby, the researcher moves from more specific observations to a broader theories and generalization. This is sometimes known as bottom-up. in this type of research specific measure and observations are taken, then the patterns and regularities are detected. Tentative hypothesis are then formulated and explored, and at the end, general conclusions or theories are developed.
According to philosophers, modern view embraces diversity as legitimate. Modern view presents something the way it is regardless of the perspectives or point of views of different people. For example some people see a dandelion as a beautiful flower while others see it as an annoying weed. However, according to modern view, a dandelion remains a dandelion regardless of people’s point of view; the concepts “an annoying weed” and a “beautiful flower” are only subjective views imposed on the plant. The world view is good because thing do not change their status despite the opinions of people concerning the thing. A chair would remain a chair even if others view it as a table or a bed. On the other hand, there are things, which change with time for example, the what used to be considered unacceptable in a certain society is acceptable today and the vice versa.
The five research questions are:
Do men love tall women? This depends on point of an individual.
Is giving a girl a rose flower, show that you love her? This would depend on what a rose means to every one.
Are Africans damn than the others? This would depend on ones point of view.
Do roses smell good? This would depend on the ones preference.
Is light always at the end of the tunnel? The answer depends on the each ones situation or experience.
Article 3 of Wysocki’s reading is about the School Tracking and Student Violence. Since 1999 shootings in April at Columbiane High School, violence in schools was given much attention by the media. Therefore, there was need to find ways curb the violence, parents were increasingly getting worried of the safety of their children at school. There were numerous cries to form local, State and national task force to confront the school violence. The task force examined the security systems in the school, particularly the crime prevention and control measures. All this did not help them understand the increasing violence in schools; the measures ignored the organizational structure of the schools. This article by Yogan focuses on the school organizational structure, particularly on the effects of placing students in ability-based groups on students interactions with adults and peers. The article also looks on why and how the students are tracked as well as the effects of track placement on students sense of self as the only way of understanding violence in schools.
The theory of symbolic interaction and student-teacher interaction is one concepts underlying self development. These theory is based on the assumption that education is gained through people’s interactions with the others and according to Yogan people understand each other through symbolic interaction. Symbolic interaction is also useful in understanding the role share meaning the interaction between the teacher and the student. According to Blunner, symbolic interaction rests on simple premises. Firstly, people act towards things, which have meaning for them, secondly, these things are derived from social interactions and finally, the meaning is derived from the interactive process used in dealing with things. These premises are used to hypothesized that teachers act on students basing on the meanings students have for fun. This hypothesis was supported by researchers. Teachers adopted their meanings rather than independently developing meanings, and the third meanings would be modified through interpretive process. This suggested that it is easy to change meanings that are socially constructed those that are simply adopted. If the teachers understand this the would be able to create a special class environment initiating interaction in class for the purpose of education. They would also understand the symbols of communication of the students and how social groups differ. This kind of interactions would clearly help the teachers and students understand the increasing violence in schools; this is because they understand the students well and their cause of their behavior.